About

Composed and handwritten by Count Riamo d’Hulst, one of the early officers of the Egypt Exploration Fund (EEF), these dispatches from Egypt provide further insights into the discovery and distribution of archaeological artifacts and antiquities in the late 19th century.

Little is known about the Count’s origins. According to the EEF co-founder, Reginald Stuart Poole, d’Hulst had been an officer in the Corps d’Elite of the Prussian Army and brought his military training to bear on the logistics of moving and transporting large monuments from the Fund’s allocated archaeological sites. Due to his fluency in the Arabic language, d’Hulst was also placed in charge of the local Egyptians employed to help with the excavation work.

D’Hulst was discharged from the EEF in 1893. He continued to live in Egypt, working as a private antiquarian. In 1915, he was imprisoned in Ras-el-Tin as an enemy alien. Suffering from malaria, he died in Cairo in 1917.

Held in various archives, D’Hulst’s handwritten letters are transcribed here as faithfully as possible. Orthographical and grammatical errors are included in the transcriptions, and corrections to the text are suggested in the transcription notes. Translations, when supplied, are rendered in a way that stays close to the original text.

Each manuscript page is presented as a separate entity categorized according to the date supplied on the manuscript letterhead. A written line of text is indicated by numbers in square parentheses. Occasional critical and historical notes are provided at the end of the text.

The transcriptions and translations posted here represent a work in progress. These original materials may be shared and re-used according to the Creative Commons 4.0 license (CC by 4.0). Please attribute the work to Rebecca J. W. Jefferson. When citing the original manuscripts, please credit the holding institution.

Contact me at rjefferson@ufl.edu with comments or for further information.